Amid intensifying anti-Jewish measures and the 1938 Kristallnacht (‘Night of Broken Glass’) pogrom, Johanna’s family decided to leave Germany. They obtained visas for Albania, crossed into Italy, and sailed in 1939. They remained in Albania under the Italian occupation and, after Italy surrendered in 1943, under German occupation. The family was liberated after a battle between the Germans and Albanian partisans in December 1944.
Project: 6. Under a cloak of terror: violence and armed conflict in Europe.
Scope: Secondary Education, Higher Education
Resource type: Oral sources
Source: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Owner: Porto group (Modernalia)
Copyright: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Collection
Abstract: World War II